Journal of Unification Studies Vol. 22, 2021 - Pages 1-20
This article highlights a pivotal and little-known ceremony referred to as Gomyeong, which took place in Canada on June 14, 1991. Gomyeong is a Korean term that translates as the final decree that a king leaves for his subjects before passing away. Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon writes in her memoir Mother of Peace (2020):
True Father proclaimed his Gomyeong at Clearstone Lodge in Canada, in the presence of representative Japanese women leaders… In this proclamation, my husband declared that after his ascension, I would continue our God-given mission and that the Japanese woman leaders should take responsibility to support me.
The article offers a perspective as to why Canada served as the backdrop for the ceremony. It considers Rev. Moon’s understanding of Canada as an “Eve nation” and later “daughter nation.” It also includes the author’s eyewitness account of the Gomyeong ceremony as recorded in his diary, chronology of events, letters and reports written during the period shortly after the event in addition to supplementary information provided by those who were present at the time. The article’s concluding sections reflect on the significance of the ceremony in relation to the issue of succession and passing of the messianic mission from husband to wife.
Unification teaching posits that God’s ultimate purpose is the establishment of Cheon Il Guk, a Korean abbreviation for a God-centered world where goodness and peace reign. It states that throughout the history of God’s providence various nations have played important roles, and Unificationists are familiar with typologies where countries are identified as having roles similar to biblical characters such as Adam, Eve, the Archangel, Cain and Abel, and also to family positions like father, mother, elder son or daughter.
Unification teaching refers to the specific roles of countries such as Israel, Egypt, Greece, Persia, Rome, India, China, Britain, France, Japan, Korea and the USA to name but a few. Countries in each continent have roles in God’s providence; this article focuses on Canada’s role as an Eve nation in God’s modern providence.
Rev. Moon referred to Canada as an Eve nation on the North American continent from at least 1971. He also referred to Canada as a daughter nation on the global level since the mid-1990s. Canada’s providential role has been shaped by its history, geography and spiritual heritage.
What is Canada?
Geographically, Canada is a vast country, the second largest country in the world. With a population of close to 40 million, it is not densely populated. Canada evokes images of a pristine environment and wide-open spaces with a high standard and quality of life, generous social programs and a very diverse population.
The people of Canada are not a homogeneous group and include the Indigenous people, the original occupants of North America. Although the Scandinavian Vikings did settle for a short time in Newfoundland around 1000 AD, people of French and British origins were the first Europeans to establish permanent settlements and later became joint founders of the country named Canada. Additionally, communities of practically all ethnicities on earth have immigrated during the past century or longer and now consider Canada their home.
Although the current situation demonstrates a steep decline in overt religiosity, Canada has deep spiritual and religious roots. While Indigenous spirituality pre-existed the arrival of the Europeans and continues to this day, the sixteenth and seventeenth-century French and British settlers brought with them their religions: Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.
Religious nuances are expressed in the Canadian Constitution, which begins with: “Whereas Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God and the rule of law…” Also, the original French version of the Canadian National Anthem refers to “valor tempered with faith that will protect our homes and our rights.” The English version of the anthem (not a transliteration of the original French), contains such lines as “The True North strong and free” and “God keep our land glorious and free.”
Engraved in the Parliamentary Buildings are biblical verses that remind us of God. Over each of the exterior arched windows of the central Peace Tower are the verses: “He shall have dominion also from sea to sea” (Psalm 72:8) over the east window, “Give the King thy judgment, O God, and thy righteousness unto the King’s son” (Psalm 72:1) over the south window, and “Where there is no vision, the people perish” (Proverbs 29:18) over the west window.
On the largest bell that rings at regular intervals from the Parliament building, inscribed in 1926 at the request of former Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, is the Scripture verse, “Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, goodwill to all men.” (Luke 2:14) The former Prime Minister was not alone in the belief that the Messiah would come again.
Also inscribed on Canada’s coat of arms is A mari usque Ad mare, a segment of the Latin version of the above-mentioned Psalm 72:8, “from sea to sea.” The Fathers of Canadian Confederation and the subsequent leadership of the country had a vision for Canada centered on God’s truth.
Montreal, originally a town named Ville Marie, was initially founded in 1642 as a mission post to the indigenous peoples. It inspired one Canadian historian to state, “This is perhaps unique in history: the birth of a town… whose only goal was the glory of God and the conversion of the natives.” Thus, the founding values and narrative that gave birth to Canada are clearly rooted in spiritual content.
Canada as an Eve Nation
Rev. Moon first set foot on Canadian soil on July 1, 1965. It was significant that his visit was on the 98th Anniversary of Canadian Confederation, a national holiday now called Canada Day. Having just completed an almost five-month tour of the United States, he wrote to the late Mr. Hyo Won Eu, then President of the Korean Unification Church, that Canada’s scenery reminded him of Korea. Rev. and Mrs. Moon have mentioned Canada on numerous occasions throughout their ministry.
His first visit lasted less than 36 hours and was for the purpose of establishing and blessing a holy ground in Canada, just as he did in over 40 countries during his first world tour of 1965.
Reverend and Mrs. Moon unexpectedly visited Canada together in December 1971, mainly because Rev. Moon was denied entry to the United States on suspicions of a false report that he was a Communist. Their first recorded mention of Canada’s providential role came soon after their stay in Toronto at that time.
As mentioned, Unificationists learn about typologies where nations have missions in God’s providence resembling the roles of biblical figures or family relations on global, continental and other geographic zones. Rev. and Mrs. Moon have referred to Canada as an “Eve country” since 1971 and as a “daughter nation” since 1996.
Shortly after arriving in the United States, Rev. Moon spoke about the role of Canada as an Eve country when he stated:
This year, 1971, is the middle year of the seven-year course. This year I am on my third world tour, which has great significance. I left Korea, came to Japan, then to Canada, and then to America. To come here I had to fight many obstacles, but from now on these difficulties will be lessened. Canada is in the position of Eve to America, because it is an extension of England, which is in the position of Eve. I wanted to link the victorious foundation which we fought for and acquired in Korea to Japan, Canada, and America. I had to come through Canada to America, and because Canada is in Eve's position, I could do that. Because I wanted to link the victorious foundation to America, Satan tried to stop it. That’s why there were so many difficulties in my coming. At this time those conditions had to be broken before you could inherit what heaven has restored in Korea, the victorious foundation.
What does it mean to be in the role of Eve on the North American continent? At other times, Rev. Moon explained that Korea was in the Adamic position, Japan was the global Eve and the United States was in the role of the Archangel. On the North American continent, the United States was Adam, Canada was in the Eve role, and Mexico or South America in the role of the Archangel. Similar constellations are contained in the speeches of Rev. Moon for each continent. For example, in Europe, Germany was the Adam country, Britain was Eve and France had the Archangel role. In the former communist world, North Korea was in the Adam role, China in the Eve role and the former Soviet Union in the Archangel position.
Here Rev. Moon speaks about Canada’s role in relation to North and South America:
Canada and USA are supposed to become one as Eve and Adam. The Archangel is South America. They cannot be separated. Canada should guide the USA. The bigger hope is in Canada. Canada is less serious of a problem compared to the USA even concerning the issue of free sex. South and North America consists of Eve, Adam and the Archangel countries. These three should become one.
Canada and the U.S.A.
In the 1971 instance, Canada’s role as Eve may have had something to do with giving Rev. and Mrs. Moon safe passage and an avenue through which they could continue their mission in the United States. Rev. and Mrs. Moon consider themselves as having a central role in God’s providence and that they were asked to go to America, the central country in the dispensation that had the mission to be the launch pad to bring God’s word—the new revelation that God had given them—to the entire world.
That Canada received Rev. and Mrs. Moon at the time was viewed as providential, and one could surmise that had Canada not been a sovereign country separate from the United States, it may have been very difficult for Rev. and Mrs. Moon to enter the USA. Therein lies a potential reason for Canada’s very existence as a country separate from the United States, if one accepts the important messianic role of Unificationism’s founders.
At a meeting in Canada on June 18, 1988, the author directly asked Rev. Moon about Canada’s providential role in the dispensation. He replied as follows:
Canada used to be a British colony, didn’t it? And you still consider the British queen as titular Head of State, right? Well, we can say that Britain gave birth to America; the same kind of theory can be applied here in the relationship between Britain and Canada. Therefore, if America is male, Canada can be female.
In the following years, Canada’s role was mentioned in various instances, and especially in 1991, Rev. Moon spoke extensively about Canada’s role. At a special ceremony held at Clearstone Lodge near Toronto, he again spoke of Canada in an Eve position when he stated:
I represent the true Adamic figure, True Mother represents the true Eve, [and] the four Japanese women are the key representa¬tives of the worldwide Eve nation, Japan. Since Canada is an extension of England, which was the original Eve nation, this ceremony is being held here.
More about the ceremony and circumstances will be presented later in this article.
In 1993, shortly after Mrs. Moon spoke in the Canadian Parliament buildings in Ottawa, Rev. Moon again referred to Canada. He stated:
The country connected to the UK is Canada. Canada! True Mother’s speech at the Canadian parliament was unprecedented and a great success. Now Canada has the foundation that can do whatever I directly order it to do. From 4 years ago, in the event that Japan fails its mission, I have been praying that Canada can be restored and stand in Japan’s place.
Later, on December 7, 1995, Rev. Moon spoke publicly in Toronto. This was not part of his original global itinerary. The event was organized within two weeks because he was refused entry into several European countries due to what became known as the Schengen ban. The event in Canada was to make up for the fact Rev. Moon could not speak in the UK and other European countries.
Before reading his prepared speech in Toronto, Rev. Moon extemporaneously explained that Canada is in a role to mediate between Europe and the United States, and that if Canada sticks with him, it will become the number one country in the world and indeed surpass the United States. Interestingly, the Toronto Star, Canada’s most widely read daily newspaper, reported this point twice in the same article published on December 8. He further stated that his hope was for Canada to help mediate the Unification of Protestant North America and Catholic South America.
Canada’s role was again emphasized by Mrs. Moon on July 17, 2017, when she commented at an international leaders’ meeting that Canada should be designated a special region in the global Unification group and should serve as a bridge to support both the United States and Europe.
Canada as a Daughter Nation
Beginning in January 1996, Rev. Moon began to speak about the roles of Taiwan, the Philippines and Canada as nations that would support the role of Japan as the international Eve nation. In April of 1998, a special gathering was held in New York that further emphasized and clarified the roles of the three countries as daughter nations. Also in 1998, he further elaborated about his concern for Japan’s role to be as a mother to the world and the need for more support when he stated:
If there is no mother, a substitute can be found. If I say, “The respon¬sibility that Japan could not fulfill economically – the mother’s task of buying food and making money to feed the world population – should be carried out by your daughters!” Then this responsibility must be fulfilled. Who should be quickly restored? Taiwan, the Philippines, and Canada should be quickly restored before Japan. If Japan fails, these three nations should come in and lift up Japan. That is why we have created the Federation of Island Nations, the Federation of Peninsular Nations, and the Federation of Continental Nations, while also establishing the foundation for creating a new UN.
Thus, from 1998 onward, Rev. Moon spoke about a new global constellation of countries with Korea as the father nation, Japan as the mother nation, the United States as the elder son nation, and the countries of Canada, the Philippines and Taiwan as daughter nations. At times, Australia and New Zealand were also mentioned.
At a lunch meeting with Rev. Moon on December 23, 2005, where he was informed by the author that immigrant communities were growing rapidly in Canada and would in time compose over 30 percent of the population, he said that the country would be the ideal place for cross-cultural blessings. Rev. Moon’s vision of realizing a world of peace through cross cultural marriage blessings has been a long-held conviction, and Canada is an ideal location for such development. In some cities such as Toronto and Vancouver, it is now reality that over 50 percent of the population are from visible minorities, primarily Asian and South Asian, and not of French or British heritage.
In Geneva, Switzerland on July 16, 2006, Reverend Moon again spoke of Canada as follows:
The land of Canada is big. It has abundant natural resources. It is the Land of the Future, the Land of Hope and Land of Blessings. “Canada” sounds like the beginning of the Korean alphabet, the consonants ka, na, da, ra (가, 나, 다, 라). It is the nation of the four-position foundation. It is the nation God prepared for today.
In summary, Canada has been in a supportive role to the United States and Japan in the global providence. It is historically rooted in Asia through its substantial Indigenous population and to Europe as a result of its strong connection to Great Britain and France. Through establishing the most integrated trade relations with the United States, it has become a strong ally of its neighbor, and through its strong, open and disciplined immigration policy, Canada has welcomed peoples from every country on earth, thus establishing ties with every continent.
The Gomyeong Ceremony to Establish the Mother of Peace
A most important providential ceremony in the life of Rev. and Mrs. Moon took place in Canada for a very specific reason. As a direct witness along with a small group of Canadian Unification members, the author testifies for the historical record.
Rev. and Mrs. Moon had been visiting Canada from June 5 to 9 in 1991, travelling by car from New York. On June 8, while fishing on Lake Ontario, Rev. Moon used an early version of a cell phone – a large “field telephone” similar to those used by armies for communication in the field – to call Japan. He asked that the wives of the four main Japanese elders come to New York in a matter of days for Day of All Things, a church holy day. The following day, the founders travelled back to New York.
On June 12, Robert Duffy, then president of the Canadian Unification Church, and the author attended the Day of All Things celebration at the invitation of Rev. and Mrs. Moon at the New Yorker Hotel. As they were walking toward the Grand Ballroom on the second-floor mezzanine, Mrs. Moon glanced in our direction and smiled. We immediately looked at each other and nodded while simultaneously expressing aloud, “They are coming back to Canada.”
It was about 6 p.m. in the evening the following day, as Robert Duffy and the author had nearly completed the drive back to Toronto, that Peter Kim, Rev. Moon’s personal assistant, called with an urgent message: they were departing by car from East Garden, their residence in Irvington, New York, at 8:00 p.m. bound for Canada. Intuition had been accurate, and a mad rush ensued to prepare for their return. In an era prior to widespread use of the cell phone it was quite a challenge, but the Canadian members responded with dedication.
At 3:15 a.m. on June 14, 1991, having driven through the late hours of the night, Rev. and Mrs. Moon arrived at Clearstone Lodge, the Canadian Church’s property near Cobourg, Ontario on Rice Lake. On this second visit, they were accompanied by the wives of the major leaders of the Japanese Unification Church: Mrs. Tetsuko Kuboki, wife of the president of the church in Japan, Mrs. Noriko Oyamada, wife of the vice-president and President of the Women’s Federation for Peace in Asia, Mrs. Kyoko Furuta, wife of the president of Happy World Japan, and Mrs. Setsuko and Mr. Setsuo Sakurai, prominent Unification leaders in Japan.
After a very short rest, Rev. and Mrs. Moon gathered the Japanese elders around 7:00 a.m. in the living room of Clearstone Lodge and held a special ceremony. It was done quietly and discreetly, and no video or audio recording exists as nobody was notified. A few Canadian members watched through the narrow glass panels on either side of the closed door and made notes of the verbal reports given later that day to my wife and other Japanese members by the Japanese elders, as the entire ceremony was conducted in Japanese. These first-hand accounts served as the basis for later historical reports.
During the ceremony, Rev. Moon prayed and asked Mrs. Moon to pledge that she would continue his messianic mission after he died. Rev. Moon then asked Mrs. Moon to pledge, in Japanese, that she would do so before the Japanese representatives as witnesses. After Mrs. Moon had done so, Rev. Moon explained the significance of holding the ceremony in Canada as follows:
I, True Father, represent the true Adamic figure, True Mother represents the true Eve, and the four Japanese women are the key representa¬tives of the world-wide Eve nation, Japan. Since Canada is an extension of England, which was the original Eve nation, this ceremony is being held here.
Many years later, in April 2017, three of the Japanese elders were interviewed by the Japanese Unification History Department and elaborated about the ceremony as follows:
True Father and True Mother stood facing each other while the four Japanese women lined up behind True Father. Mr. Sakurai stood at the two o’clock position to the right of True Mother. True Father first offered a prayer in which he comforted God for the two-thousand-year history of Christianity that could not receive the True Parents and pledged to establish a new foundation as the Bride of Christ for the sake of the new providence. True Father explained that Mr. Sakurai represented Christianity. True Father then led a pledge in Japanese followed by True Mother as the Original Eve and the four Japanese wives as Cain-type Eves.
Rev. Moon then encouraged Mrs. Moon and the four Japanese women to establish deep unity, because this ceremony represented the beginning of a new era in Mrs. Moon’s public mission. Shortly thereafter, on September 17, 1991, Mrs. Moon would begin the first of her public speaking tours in Japan.
The author’s wife recalls having to buy some essential clothing items for each of the elders on the first day of their stay in Canada. Indeed, their visit was sudden and unexpected, as they only had time to take their purses and passports with them before travelling by car to Canada with the founders. According to the testimonies of the Japanese elders who were with Rev. and Mrs. Moon at East Garden on the evening of June 13, Rev. Moon simply told them, “Let’s go” and did not explain much.
Shortly after the Gomyeong ceremony and breakfast, Rev. Moon went fishing for salmon and trout on Lake Ontario, a thirty-minute drive from Clearstone Lodge. He fished until sunset with a small group that included Robert Duffy, Michael McDevitt, Setsuo Sakurai, Peter Kim, Mike Templeman and the author. He spoke extensively and provided deep guidance in English about many aspects of the providence—a rare experience to say the least. The fishing “team” returned to Clearstone Lodge after dark for dinner and were joined by Mrs. Moon and the Japanese elders. During dinner, Mrs. Moon recommended to Rev. Moon that the author accompany her on a trip to Montreal and Ottawa with the Japanese elders the next morning, June 15. The following days included trips to the Thousand Islands region and Toronto, and was a time for creating deep bonds of heart.
The party consisted of Mrs. Moon, the four Japanese women leaders, Mrs. Wonju McDevitt, Mr. Ki Byung Yoon, and the author who served as driver and tour guide. Shortly after breakfast and seeing Rev. Moon off as he headed for Lake Ontario, the party drove for four hours and, as we entered the western part of the island of Montreal, we stopped for lunch at the McDonald’s near Fairview Mall. We then went for a quick shopping trip at Hudson’s Bay department store and the nearby mall, where Mrs. Moon carefully purchased sweaters for each of the male members who were attending the founders in Canada. The ladies later received items of her own clothing that she had carefully prepared for them.
The author recalls Mrs. Moon asking for the names of each member to make sure nobody was forgotten, as well as what sizes would be appropriate. She noticed the white shirt the author was wearing and suggested that something with more color would be better for the journey, and personally chose a polo shirt. At the cash register she asked why there was a surcharge on the listed price, which led to a short discussion about Canadian sales tax, the national debt and the economy in general. Mrs. Moon was very engaging.
While driving to the city center, the author explained about the original French settlement in Montreal, Ville Marie, being established as a mission to the Indigenous people by missionaries from France. Mrs. Moon was quite interested and asked, “Please repeat exactly what you said,” as she wanted to understand more about the city and its history. Five years later, in October 1996, Mrs. Moon spoke publicly in Montreal during one of her global speaking tours.
In Old Montreal, the group did a walking tour by City Hall and visited the Roman Catholic Notre Dame Basilica. Mrs. Moon very much appreciated the art and architecture as we toured and repeated three times, “This is so beautiful.” As the group exited, she suggested making a donation to the church.
A Prophetic Moment
In the mid-afternoon the party drove two hours to Ottawa. The first location they visited was the Holy Ground on Parliament Hill that Rev. Moon established in 1965, just west of the Center Block of the Parliament buildings.
Mrs. Moon gathered the party in a circle and prayed, and later we toured the seat of Canadian governance whose main tower is appropriately called the “Peace Tower.” At one point the group paused before a large portrait of Queen Victoria, sovereign of the British Commonwealth when Canada was established in 1867. Queen Victoria was 48 years old at the time of Canadian Confederation in 1867; interestingly the same age as Mrs. Moon was in 1991. Mrs. Moon commented that Victoria, as portrayed, looked like a very strong woman.
As the group regarded the portrait of the former Queen, Mrs. Oyamada exclaimed, “True Mother should speak here!” and the Japanese elders all expressed their support. The author immediately noticed Mrs. Moon’s facial expression displaying full confidence and determination as she quietly nodded.
It was surely a prophetic moment, because a little more than two years later, on November 8, 1993, with the support of faithful Canadian members and the help of the former Governor General, Rt. Hon. Edward Schreyer, Mrs. Moon indeed spoke in the Canadian Parliament Buildings during her first global speaking tour entitled, “True Parents and the Completed Testament Age.” Mr. Schreyer had previously been with Rev. and Mrs. Moon in Moscow when they met President Gorbachev and had also been to Korea, later participating with delegations to Pyongyang.
The group continued their stay in Ottawa with a short walk around the Parliament buildings, and enjoyed the beautiful view of the Ottawa River and the Gatineau Hills. Mrs. Moon asked, “So how do you pronounce Ottawa? Is it Ohttawa or is it Ahddawa?” She had perceptively noted that Canadians have different ways of pronouncing the name of their capital city! The party returned to Clearstone Lodge in the late evening from a full day of travel, where Rev. Moon who was speaking there continued late into the night.
On the following days, June 16 and 17th, Rev. Moon continued fishing on Lake Ontario while Mrs. Moon and her party visited the Thousand Islands region on Lake Ontario and then Toronto. In the evening Rev. and Mrs. Moon gathered the members to share testimonies and then had us all sing, with the finale by Rev. Moon himself. On one of those evenings, Mrs. Oyamada shared her testimony of how a few years earlier the Women’s Federation for Peace in Asia had been founded in Japan with herself as President.
The final full day of the founders’ visit to Canada, Tuesday, June 18, 1991, proved to be an especially significant day for the Canadian Church. It was also the 23rd anniversary since the opening of the first center in Toronto, in 1968.
As before, Rev. Moon went fishing early in the morning while Mrs. Moon remained on the Clearstone property with the Japanese elders. At Mrs. Moon’s request, dinner was served on the front lawn of the property for everyone. It was a warm summer evening, and as about forty members sat in a circle around a small fire, Rev. Moon asked that each husband share some words about his own wife. Once the husband had done so, Rev. Moon himself commented about each couple, providing insights on their situation or character. It was surprising that, although Rev. Moon had spent very little time with each person, he was very much aware of each person's strengths and weaknesses.
The rather jovial exchange on the front lawn continued for some time, and then Rev. Moon began speaking about the future development of the Canadian church. He said:
Suppose I came here and stayed here every day. What do you expect I would do with all of you? If I stay here for one month, I will send all of you pioneering. What do you think, do you want to see your country of Canada, particularly the Unification Church Movement, progress and develop or not? If you just stay still and follow the pattern you have been keeping, how can you expect that there will be development?
Before departing Canada, Rev. Moon provided more guidance about restructuring the church. Then in the late morning after breakfast on June 19, 1991, Rev. and Mrs. Moon and their party began the eight-hour drive back to New York, stopping at the observation tower at Thousand Islands with their staff, the Japanese elders and three Canadian leaders. While observing the beautiful scenery, they continued giving advice and counsel and photos were taken. They once again demonstrated that they are really parents for everyone.
Mrs. Moon’s Public Mission
Mrs. Tetsuko Kuboki, in a personal letter dated November 1991 written in Japanese to the author and his wife Chizuru, explained how she and the elder Japanese women leaders were to support Mrs. Moon as Rev. Moon’s successor. She related that shortly after the Canadian ceremony, on July 1, 1991, these four Japanese elders participated in a special ceremony in Korea. She explained that they had no idea why they were called to Korea and wrote, “When True Parents start a new phase of God’s providence, they don’t say anything and make the conditions quietly and quickly.”
Mrs. Kuboki related that Rev. and Mrs. Moon made special conditions in Alaska during the month of July to catch king salmon, the king of all salmon. Similarly, Rev. Moon fished for salmon on Lake Ontario during the entire time he was in Canada, and Mrs. Moon also went fishing on the shores of Lake Ontario. In Alaska, “True Mother caught a King salmon that was even larger than the one caught by True Father, noting that it was due to such conditions that the era of Eve, the women’s era, could begin.”
She wrote that Rev. Moon set a goal that the Asian Federation gain 100,000 members, and therefore in the summer of 1991 the Japanese women leaders planned a large rally to expand membership. They reserved the NK Hall in Chiba with a capacity of 7000 people for September 17, 1991. Although they invited several important entertainers, they had not been able to find a principal speaker.
Then Mrs. Oyamada received an inspiration, based on True Father’s words, that True Mother should be the main speaker. When the Japanese elders cautiously asked True Father, he immediately agreed, saying, “That is a good idea. True Mother should go to Japan.” He asked True Mother to do so and, although True Mother was surprised and initially hesitant, she determined quietly to do it based on True Father’s strong desire. Mrs. Kuboki wrote that she really felt that God had prepared the women’s era from the time they had been in Canada a few months earlier.
Until that time, Mrs. Moon would stand behind Rev. Moon and never appeared in the forefront. Suddenly, Mrs. Moon stood before a large public event of important women in Japan. Although she was nervous, she brought tremendous success. Mrs. Moon embraced the audience and amazingly delivered her public speech to a fully packed hall in the Japanese language. “True Mother brought success and revived Japan.”
Following her success, Mrs. Moon visited Japan again and there was a major change of leadership. For example, Mr. Kuboki was appointed Honorary Chair of the Japanese church after serving for 30 years as President. Additionally, there was an exchange of some 200 Japanese leaders from America with 200 leaders from Japan.
Mrs. Kuboki wrote, “True Father was very pleased with True Mother’s victory in Japan. He directed the expansion of the Asian Women’s Federation, so on October 31, 1991 an inaugural gathering was held in Korea, followed by a rally for 15,000 people on November 20. A few days later, on November 30, True Parents visited North Korea. Thereby, the foundation was set for the Inauguration of the Women’s Federation for World Peace on April 10, 1992.” Mrs. Kuboki concluded her November 1991 letter with the following words:
Truly I think that, since we returned from Canada, God’s providence centered on True Mother started so fast. I really feel that as an Eve nation this is the final mission that I would like to fulfill.
In a second letter dated April 1992, Mrs. Kuboki shared about Rev. and Mrs. Moon’s victorious visit to Japan between March 26 and April 1, 1992, and explained how their meetings with important leaders, such as former Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone and Mr. Shin Kanemaru, solidified the foundation in the Eve country. She also expressed her concern that if Japan failed her mission to accept True Parents, True Parents had prepared Canada to carry on the mission. So it was that later, in 1996, Rev. Moon established three nations, Canada, the Philippines and Taiwan as daughter nations.
Looking back to those events of June 1991, which happened over thirty years ago, it is clear that Rev. and Mrs. Moon were as united then as they are united now. Those privileged to witness the Gomyeong ceremony and attend Rev. and Mrs. Moon during their time in Canada have engraved the memories in their hearts.
From 1991 onward, Mrs. Moon embarked on the very public segment of her mission. Yet we were witnesses to a story that some may have not known. Those who were blessed by Rev. and Mrs. Moon, and could witness Mrs. Moon’s course in Canada, continue to pray and support her as she forges ahead to realize the Heavenly ideal that God, the Heavenly Parent, desperately dreams of and that she and her husband have labored tirelessly to accomplish.
A Note about Succession
Because an important ceremony concerning the continuation of the God-given mission of the Messiah, the True Parents, took place in Canada, it is fitting to mention the issue of succession. That Canada is an extension of England makes it even more meaningful.
Historically, the order or right of succession has followed specific rules and traditions in monarchies and other institutions including the world of business. Succession and inheritance have not always been smooth. Primogeniture has been fundamental in royal traditions around the world, and the British monarchial system has served as a template for many governments. Modern monarchies have constantly reformed the way power was transferred from generation to generation.
Korea, Japan and many other countries also have royal traditions, with rules and customs on succession and inheritance that date back centuries. It is not the purpose of this paper to explore the issue of succession in depth, but because the Gomyeong ceremony (the king’s final decree) took place in Canada, it is worthy of mention.
Canada continues to recognize the British monarch as head of state. In the case of Britain, since the Norman conquest in 1066, it was presumed that kings would simply pass the power to rule to the first son. The line of succession was also used to determine non-royal heirs to property and wealth. Succession rules and traditions in China, Korea, Japan have followed similar customs.
The essence of the Gomyeong ceremony in Canada in June 1991 was that the messianic mission should pass from the husband to the wife, from Father to Mother and then to the children. Thus, since at least March 1990, Rev. Moon referred to Mrs. Moon as the co-founder.
Another thing which I declared at Pledge Service was that I am the first founder of the Unification Church and Mother is the second founder. Women can now stand side by side with the men. If Mother alone should visit one of the Unification Churches around the world, no one can say, “Why did Mother come alone? Where is Father?” Because Mother, all by herself represents and is the founder of the church. If I had to proceed alone from here, God's dispensation would go forward. If Mother had to proceed alone, the same is true. God's dispensation will be consummated! The outside world is talking about Reverend Moon being seventy years old. “Who is going to be his successor?” people ask. But I tell them there is no need to worry because Mrs. Moon, our True Mother, is only 47 years old!
In her memoir, Mrs. Moon shares about an encounter with senior members of the church in early 1990, just prior to the time Rev. Moon shared the above words and a short time before the meeting with the then President of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev. She relates how Rev. Moon sought to assure the senior members who were concerned that such a meeting in the Soviet Union was exceedingly dangerous. Rev. Moon said, “It’s time to decide to decide who will lead the movement when I am not here.” He stated then and repeated it on numerous occasions until he passed in 2012, that “Even if I am not here, it is fine as long as Mother is present.”
The ceremony in Canada served to concretize the role of Mrs. Moon. Continuation of the mission was only part of the ceremony. Lifting Mrs. Moon up to stand as co-equal to Rev. Moon was the principal meaning. The very fact that Mrs. Moon is co-equal as Messiah and co-founder serves as the foundation for Mrs. Moon to continue the leadership of the messianic movement after Rev. Moon passed. Mrs. Moon may not have qualified to continue Rev. Moon’s mission if she was purely a consort and not co-equal with him. The children of True Parents, in that case, might have had a claim to the leadership of the movement.
What may have been misunderstood is that it is on the foundation of unity between parents and children that the children and then the grandchildren could legitimately inherit the leadership. Such unity and harmony within the family would form the basis for the continued expansion of Cheon Il Guk, the Kingdom of Heaven on earth or “One Family under God.”
Tragically, the importance of mother-child cooperation after the passing of Rev. Moon was not well understood, even though the typology of mother-son cooperation is found in the biblical narratives involving Isaac, Rebecca and their sons Jacob and Esau, Judah, Tamar and their sons Zerah and Perez, and Mary the mother of Jesus.
In the case of passing on the God-given Messianic mission, Rev. Moon clearly stated that Mrs. Moon should continue the mission after he passed. Then based on mother-child cooperation, the mission would be passed down to future generations.
Canada’s role tends not to be in the spotlight, and the country has often been a quiet supportive country that works behind the scenes. Canadians have a reputation for being modest and polite. It is a country that has high respect for the rules of law and governance. The feminine or Eve role attributed by Rev. and Mrs. Moon is appropriate.
Similarly, the Gomyeong ceremony took place quietly and without much fanfare. Yet, the content was profound and far reaching. The essentials of the continuation of the Messianic mission were encapsulated in Rev. Moon’s prayer and Mrs. Moon’s pledge to continue the Messianic mission made on the morning of June 14, 1991.
The Women’s Era emerged in the early 1990s, and the founding of the Women’s Federation for World Peace and the numerous speaking tours conducted by Mrs. Moon in the 1990s and 2000s, along with the ongoing efforts of Mrs. Moon since Rev. Moon’s passing in 2012, demonstrate her commitment to the ultimate cause of fulfilling the God-given mission. Mrs. Moon has clearly put her imprint on the development of the providence. A pivotal point was the Gomyeong ceremony of 1991.
 Unificationists affectionately refer to the late Reverend Sun Myung Moon and Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon as True Father and True Mother, or jointly as True Parents.
 Hak Ja Han Moon, Mother of Peace (Washington Times Global Media Group, 2020), p. 184. (The correct name of the location is “Clearstone Lodge”; the insertion of “Deer Park” is an error in the published memoir.) The Japanese women leaders Mrs. Moon refers to are Tetsuko Kuboki, Noriko Oyamada, Kyoko Furuta and Setsuko Sakurai.
 The author maintained a chronology of the Unification Church activities, wrote several articles about the events. See Franco Famularo, “A History of the Unification Church in Canada 1965-1991,” Masters’ thesis, Unification Theological Seminary, 1994. https://tparents.org/Library/Unification/Books/UcCan/0-Toc.htm. Accessed October 7, 2021.
 Unification teaching refers broadly to the content of the Divine Principle text and the speeches of founders Rev. Sun Myung Moon and Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon published in multiple volumes since the 1950s.
 Cheon Il Guk is a Korean abbreviation for Cheonju Pyeonghwa Tongil Guk, which translates as “Cosmic Nation of Unity and Peace” or “Cosmic Peace and Unity Nation.” Transliterated: Cheon = Heaven, Il = One and Guk = Nation. Cheon Il Guk does not refer to a geographic area but represents a universal group of individuals aspiring to build a world centered on principles of true love and true service. Cheon Il Guk is one of several terms used among Unificationists depending on context, and is similar to the Kingdom of God on earth or “One Family Under God.”
 Providence refers to how God has intervened in human affairs and in which way individuals, families, societies, countries, etc. contribute to the fulfillment of God’s purpose on earth.
 Sun Myung Moon, “How God Is Pursuing His Restoration Providence,” December 22, 1971. https://tparents.org/Moon-Talks/SunMyungMoon71/711222.HTM Accessed October 6, 2021. See also Famularo, “A History of the Unification Church in Canada 1965-1991,” which cites this statement of Rev. Moon from June 14, 1991: “I [True Father] represent the true Adamic figure, True Mother represents the true Eve, [and] the four Japanese women are the key representatives of the world-wide Eve nation, Japan. Since Canada is an extension of England, which was the original Eve nation, this ceremony is being held here.”
 Sun Myung Moon, “Excerpts of Talks on April 16 and 17, 1998.” https://tparents.org/ Moon-Talks/SunMyungMoon98/Um980416.htm Accessed October 7, 2021.
 Statistics Canada, “Geography.” https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11-402-x/2011000/chap/geo/geo-eng.htm Accessed September 17, 2021.
 World Population Review. Population of Canada as of July 1, 2021 is just over 38 million. https://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/canada-population Accessed September 9, 2021. Canada has one of the fastest growth rates of any G7 nation, growing faster than many other industrialized countries. Although fertility rate is low at 1.53 births per woman, population growth is mainly due to immigration.
 “Canada is the No 1 country in the world” https://www.newswire.ca/news-releases/ canada-is-the-no-1-country-in-the-world-according-to-the-2021-best-countries-report-867033906.html Accessed September 17, 2021. Canada consistently ranks among the top countries in the world for quality of life on a wide range of indexes.
 The Canadian Constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal peoples: Indians (more commonly referred to as First Nations), Inuit and Métis. These are three distinct peoples with unique histories, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs. There are more than 630 First Nation communities in Canada, which represent more than 50 Nations and 50 Indigenous languages. https://www.rcaanc-cirnac.gc.ca/eng/ 1100100013785/1529102490303 Accessed September 17, 2021.
 In 1971 over 90% of Canadians identified with Christianity. In 2021 the number has dropped to just over 50%. Only 68% identify with any religion. The fastest growing segment are those who claim no religious affiliation. See https://www.ctvnews.ca/lifestyle/number-of-canadians-reporting-religious-affiliations-at-all-time-low-statcan-1.5645420 and https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/75-006-x/2021001/article/00010-eng.htm. Accessed Nov. 3, 2021.
 The French reads: Et ta valeur, de foi trempée, Protégera nos foyers et nos droits.
 Gustave Lanctot, “Founding of Ville-Marie,” Canada’s History. https:// www.canadashistory.ca/explore/french-canada/founding-of-ville-marie. Accessed October 5, 2021.
 Postcard sent by Reverend Moon from Montreal, Canada, July 2, 1965 (Post stamp 9:00 p.m.). Full content as follows: “The world tour started today. I stayed one night at the Beacon Arms Hotel in Ottawa, the capital of Canada. I departed at 6:10 and am on my way to Panama. Unlike America, the scenery in Canada reminds me of Korea. I am grateful to our members who are working tirelessly for the providence with dedication. I am writing a short message to you in between my busy schedule. I plan to return to Korea in mid-October. I am sending this message from the airport and am praying for the health of all our members.” Translation by Jong Deug Yoo. In the archives of Sunhak History Committee, Korea.
 Hak Ja Han Moon mentions Canada in her public speeches at the Rallies of Hope held on August 9, 2020 and December 5, 2020. See https://tparents.org/Moon-Talks/ HakJaHan-20/HakJaHan-200809.pdf and https://tparents.org/Moon-Talks/HakJaHan-20/HakJaHan-201205.pdf. Accessed Oct. 14, 2021.
 Sun Myung Moon, “Perfection and Gratitude,” October 3, 1976. https://tparents.org/Moon-Talks/SunMyungMoon76/761003.htm Accessed October 7, 2021. “At that time I did not have a visa to enter America from Korea, so I came to Canada instead. Our members in America were very persistent in asking the State Department, "Why won’t you issue a visa to Reverend Moon?" Ironically, officials kept telling them that I was a communist in 1968 and so I was undesirable in this country. Finally, it was proven to them that I have truly been crusading for the victory over communism and they couldn't resist any further. That was the beginning of my actual ministry in America.”
 Moon, “How God is Pursuing His Restoration Providence.”
 Sun Myung Moon, “Leaders’ Conference, January 2, 1996.” https://tparents.org/Moon-Talks/SunMyungMoon96/960102.htm and “Excerpts of Talks on April 16 and 17, 1998.”
 Moon, “How God is Pursuing His Restoration Providence.”
 Sun Myung, Moon, “Important Rituals and the Ceremony of Proclamation,” May 30, 1993. Kodiak, Alaska. Translated from Korean by Moonshik Kim.
 Sun Myung Moon, “True Father Speaks at Clearstone,” June 18, 1988 at 9:30 p.m. Footsteps of True Parents Providence in Canada (FFWPU Canada, 2013), p. 337.
 Famularo, “A History of the Unification Church in Canada 1965-1991,” p. 265.
 Sun Myung Moon, “Important Rituals and Ceremonies of Proclamation,” Dec. 29, 1993. Segments of Rev. Moon’s speech translated from the original Korean by Moonshik Kim, June 2021.
 In the autumn of 1995 Rev. Moon was denied entry into France, Spain, Germany and all other countries that were part of the Schengen Treaty. He also was denied entry into the United Kingdom. See Manjola Vasmatics, “Breaking the Twelve-Year European Ban against Rev. and Mrs. Sun Myung Moon,” Journal of Unification Studies 22 (2021) q.v.
 Franco Famularo, “Rev. and Mrs. Moon in Toronto, Canada,” Unification News, December 7, 1995. https://tparents.org/UNews/unws9601/moon-can.htm Accessed October 14, 2021. See also “True Parents in Toronto, Canada,” Today’s World, June 1996, p. 25 and Toronto Star, December 8, 1995.
 Personal notes of author based on translation from Korean by Moonshik Kim, July 17, 2017.
 Moon, “Leaders’ Conference, Jan. 2, 1996.”
 Moon, “Excerpts of Talks on April 16 and 17, 1998.” See also “Sunday Sermon May 3, 1998.” http://www.tparents.org/Moon-Talks/SunMyungMoon98/UM980504.htm Accessed October 14, 2021. See also, “God is the Owner (Key Role Player) for All Existence and All Historical Events,” May 26, 1998, where he further elaborated: “But the providence must continue, so Father chose Taiwan, Philippines and Canada as the daughters of Japan. Philippines is related to America, Canada to England. If any of these three become totally one with Japan, there will be no room for Satan to accuse or infiltrate. This will restore all kinds of relationships. The Philippines consists of islands, which were supported by America. and the Philippines were an enemy of Japan. Great Britain was an enemy to Father, so Canada joins the team, representing Great Britain.” http://www.tparents.org/Moon-Talks/SunMyungMoon98/Um980526.htm Accessed October 14, 2021.
 Sun Myung Moon, Cheong Seong Gyeong (FFWPU, 2006), p. 1930. (293-161, 1998.5.26)
 Sun Myung Moon, “God Is the Owner,” May 26, 1998. https://tparents.org/Moon-Talks/SunMyungMoon98/Um980526.htm Accessed Oct. 21, 2021.
 Moon, “Leaders’ Conference, Jan. 2, 1996.”
 Sun Myung Moon, Informal talk at lunch in Toronto, Canada, December 23, 2005. Based on author’s notes after he introduced the topic of Canadian demographics.
 Population Demographics. Toronto. Health Check. https://www.toronto.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/99b4-TOHealthCheck_2019Chapter1.pdf Accessed Oct. 18, 2021. See also, “Visible Minorities now the majority in 5 B.C. cities,” CBC News, Oct. 27, 2017. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/visible-minorities-now-the-majority-in-5-b-c-cities-1.4375858 Accessed Oct. 18, 2021. Both Toronto and Vancouver have populations with over 50% visible minorities, mainly East Asian – Chinese and South Asian – Indians. Montreal is at about 30%.
 Reported to Chae Hee Lee by Joong Hyun Park, July 2006. Interview with Chae Hee Lee by the author, August 2006.
 Famularo, “A History of the Unification Church in Canada 1965-1991.” This section is based on my eyewitness account, correspondence and diaries.
 Day of All Things is one of the major holy days in the Unification calendar. Currently it is called Day of All True Things and is celebrated on the first day of the fifth month of the lunar calendar.
 Interview with Robert Duffy, who was on the boat with Rev. Moon and the author at the time, April 2021.
 The author wrote several articles about the events of 1991 that are included in A History of the Unification Church in Canada 1965-1991 (1994), in the text of Footsteps of True Parents’ Providence in Canada (2013) as well as articles written for True Peace Magazine.
 Famularo, “A History of the Unification Church in Canada 1965-1991,” p. 265. From a report given by Tetsuko Kuboki to Michiko Wilding and Chizuru Famularo. June 14, 1991.
 Japanese History Committee, unpublished manuscript, translation by Katsumi Kambashi.
 Robert Duffy, “Reports from Mother’s Tour, Ottawa, Canada,” Today’s World, December 1993, p. 16.
 The three Canadian leaders were Robert Duffy, John Bellavance and Franco Famularo.
 Letter from Tetsuko Kuboki to the author and his wife Chizuru, November 30, 1991. Translated from Japanese by Chizuru Famularo.
 Letter from Tetsuko Kuboki to the author and his wife Chizuru, April 1, 1992. Translated from Japanese by Chizuru Famularo.
 Primogeniture is defined as the state of being the first born of the children of the same parents. Also, includes an exclusive right of inheritance belonging to the eldest son. The term derives from Latin prīmogenitūra, which itself comes from prīmogenitus, meaning “firstborn,” a combination of the Latin prīmus (first, earliest) and genitus (birth). Merriam Webster Dictionary. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/primogeniture. Accessed Oct. 21, 2021.
 Sun Myung Moon, “Parents Day and I,” March 27, 1990. https://tparents.org/Moon-Talks/SunMyungMoon90/SM900327.htm. Accessed Oct. 21, 2021.
 Hak Ja Han Moon, Mother of Peace, p. 183.
 Based on a discussion with Robert Duffy, who was also present at the time of the ceremony.
 Jackie Flynn Mogensen, “A New Study Could Explain Why Americans Think Canadians are so Damn Nice,” Mother Jones, Nov. 21, 2018. https:// www.motherjones. com/media/2018/11/a-new-study-could-explain-why-americans-think-canadians-are-so-damn-nice/ Accessed Nov. 20, 2021. “Manners and Etiquette in Canada,” Canada Guide. https://thecanadaguide.com/culture/manners-and-etiquette/ Accessed Nov 20, 2021. Also, Erik Weiner, “Can Canada teach the rest of us to be nicer?” March 19, 2015. https://www.bbc.com/travel/article/20150311-can-canada-teach-the-rest-of-us-to-be-nicer. Accessed Nov. 20, 2021.